Sunday, May 24, 2020
During most of the 20th century, South Africa was ruled by a system called Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning apartness, which was based on a system of racial segregation.Ã When Did Apartheid Start? The term Apartheid was introduced during the 1948 election campaign byÃ DF MalansÃ Herenigde Nasionale PartyÃ (HNP - Reunited National Party). But racial segregation had been in force for many decades in South Africa. In hindsight, there is something of an inevitability in the way the country developed its extreme policies. When theÃ Union of South AfricaÃ was formed on May 31, 1910, Afrikaner Nationalists were given a relatively free hand to reorganize the countrys franchise according to existing standards of the now-incorporated Boer republics, theÃ Zuid Afrikaansche RepulickÃ (ZAR - South African Republic or Transvaal) and Orange Free State. Non-whites in the Cape Colony had some representation, but this would prove to be short-lived. Who Supported Apartheid? The Apartheid policy was supported by various Afrikaans newspapers and Afrikaner cultural movements such as theÃ Afrikaner BroederbondÃ andÃ Ossewabrandwag. How Did the Apartheid Government Come to Power? The United Party actually gained the majority of votes in the 1948 general election. But due to the manipulation of the geographical boundaries of the countrys constituencies before the election, the Herenigde Nasionale Party managed to win the majority of constituencies, thereby winning the election. In 1951, the HNP and Afrikaner Party officially merged to form the National Party, which became synonymous with Apartheid. What Were the Foundations of Apartheid? Over the decades, various forms ofÃ legislationÃ were introduced which extended the existing segregation against Blacks to Coloureds and Indians. The most significant acts were theÃ Group Areas Act No 41 of 1950,Ã which led to over three million people being relocated through forced removals; the Suppression of Communism Act No 44 of 1950, which was so broadly worded that almost any dissident group could beÃ banned; theÃ Bantu Authorities Act No 68 of 1951, which led to the creation ofÃ BantustansÃ (and ultimately independent homelands); and theÃ Natives (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act No 67 of 1952,Ã which, despite its title, led to the rigid application of Pass Laws. What Was Grand Apartheid? During the 1960s, racial discrimination applied to most aspects of life in South Africa andÃ BantustansÃ were created for Blacks. The system had evolved into Grand Apartheid. The country was rocked by theÃ Sharpeville Massacre, the African National Congress (ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) were banned, and the country withdrew from the British Commonwealth and declared a Republic. What Happened in the 1970s and 1980s? During the 1970s and 80s, Apartheid was reinventedÃ¢â¬âa result of increasing internal and international pressures and worsening economic difficulties. Black youth was exposed to increasing politicization and found expression against Bantu education through theÃ 1976 Soweto Uprising. Despite the creation of a tricameral parliament in 1983 and the abolition of the Pass Laws in 1986, the 1980s saw the worst political violence by both sides. When Did Apartheid End? In February 1990, President FW de Klerk announced Nelson Mandelas release and began the slow dismantling of the Apartheid system. In 1992, a whites-only referendum approved the reform process. In 1994, the first democratic elections were held in South Africa, with people of all races being able to vote. A Government of National Unity was formed, with Nelson Mandela as president and FW de Klerk and Thabo Mbeki as deputy presidents.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Research Paper Throughout time there has been of course many influences that have impacted the art world and have made it what it is today. However, there are some artistic movements that have had a greater impact and stand out over others. The movement that has always personally stood out to me was Ancient Egyptian art. The works that were produced for time period are interesting in terms of the lack of tools and the innovation to make these paintings, sculptures, and architecture that almost seem impossible to have been constructed. In my opinion the arts produced during the Early Dynastic through the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt are some of the most technologically advance forms that stand out over all other art forms for the timeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Instead we must develop a psychical distance or detachment from ancient Egyptian art in order to view it in its purest aesthetic form. Once we have achieved this then we can move on to the first of the two methods, formalism . With this method of formalism we compare form and style, analyzing only the purely visual aspects such as color, line, shape and texture of an object or artwork. Two formalist individuals worth mentioning are Immanuel Kant and Clive Bell. Kant who teaches us the importance of the disinterested viewer, and Bell who also explains this. Bell states in his article The Aesthetic Hypothesis that Our practical interests, with their correlative pleasures and pains, are blended, become confused now and then, and disquiet our aesthetic interest, but never become united with itÃ¢â¬ . So even though ancient Egyptian art has always stood out to me personally, we cannot let our personal interests or emotions effect the way we analyze the works produced from ancient Egypt. The second of the two methods needed to view and analyze the works from ancient Egypt is iconography. This method studies the content of images and symbols depicted within a certain work of art or interpretation of these. One art historian whose works of iconography are still relevant today was Erwin Panofsky. Iconography is split into three levels of learning
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Western culture had many important effects on the United States as a developing nation, and art education was no exception to this. In order to come to terms with the impact of Western culture on American art education, it is important to chronicle the progression of art education throughout Europe. Spanning centuries, the political, social, and economic development of European nations, each played an important role the philosophies of art education, which in the long run, affected American ideas concerning the subject. Thoughts about art changed and evolved in many ways over time. EflandÃ¢â¬â¢s The History of Art Education: Intellectual and Social Currents in Teaching the Visual Arts offers a concise history of art education,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The role that art did play involved one that catered towards the state. Art was used as political propaganda in that it was thought that art should serve the state, and emphasize the power of the state. These events indire ctly shaped beliefs about art in the United States, as it was a new nation that was raised on strong European influences. Throughout the history of art education, there is a common thread of political relation. The attitudes concerning art related directly to the political and economic happenings at the time. This remained a constant with early American settlers as well. For example, PuritansÃ¢â¬â¢ lives revolved around faith and farming, therefore visual art played a role that was not necessary integral. The arts involved a broad term that included crafts that were taught at home. The main goal of education was to teach students to read so that they could read scriptures. Art education today has veered quite a bit from this mentality. Art is still considered a specialized area, but even more so than in times prior to the Industrial Revolution. Where during this time period certain crafts that were part of daily living were routinely taught to young children at home, con temporary society has moved away from this. Very rarely is a student taught an art or a craft in the home, and because societyÃ¢â¬â¢s amenities and values have changed so drastically, few individuals or familiesShow MoreRelatedA Study on Financing, Liberal Arts, and Equity1572 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFinancing, Liberal Arts, Equity Introduction The existing public education system in America was established when education was a low priority. As the demands for greater education grew, the public education system tried but failed to keep pace with those demands. The educational system must standardize education across America, raise the percentage of students who have mastered basic skills and teach students to understand the importance of learning about a wide variety of subjects. 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Over the yearsRead MoreNative American Art : A Modern Artist Kent Monkman1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The history of European presence on the North American continent is tragic and violent for the indigenous peoples. Though Europeans brought with them horses and materials, such as cotton that were more easier to work with than animal hides, ultimately Euro-Americans took more than they ever gave. Native American art shows some of that battle to retain their identity as people under the marginalization Euro-Americans. That marginalization has happened from the first exposure of Europeans to NorthRead MoreEducation, Science, And Language Arts Essay1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Education has changed in some aspects of how it is expected to be taught. In the past, during the race to the moon, education was to be taught narrowly in math, science and language arts. The mindset was to expand the amount of knowledge as far as necessary to become an engineer. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Literature Reviewfor Strategic Information System. Answer: Literature Review: The notable entities which have been illustrated in this report include the evaluation of an organizational structure and the related operational disadvantages. Description of the method for system acquisition for the organization could be noted as a prominent highlight of the report. The assignment also reflects on the process of developing and adoption of packages of accounting software (Ali Haslinda, 2014). Specific discussion on the market for Tricor Australia that has been selected for the report by referring to its capabilities as a known accounting enterprise in Australia reflects on the implications for market adaptability by implementing information systems (Boonstra, 2013). The experience of Tricor has enabled it to acquire progressive growth in a minimal span of time thereby implying plausible inferences towards its capability to address a diverse assortment of business requirements placed by clients. The emphasis of the organization on addressing innovative as well as entrepreneurial business needs has also been noticed as promising indicator of the organizations drive and passion for accomplishing competitive advantage. Tricor Australia has depicted cognizable improvement in the market of technical and commercial accounting services and has acquired the reputation of a potential player in the industry. Requirement of financial consultancy services by CFOs of prominent organizations as well as SMEs is also identified as a rationale for the companys consistent development. The capabilities of Tricor in provision of professional accounting services has led to the formation of a reliable network of professionals in the domain of finance throughout Australia as well as other prominent locations around the world such as Malaysia, Indonesia, United Kingdom and Japan (Dance, 2016). The cross border operations of the organization are not limited to these countries alone and the strategic expansion initiatives have led to promising fulfilment of organizational needs as well as client requirement in every area served by Tricor Australia. The innovative measures of the organization have successfully induced favourable outcomes such as improvement of net worth of the company alongside improving the returns for clients of the organization (Dance, 2016). Flat organizational structure can be assumed as the organization structure that can be observed in case of Tricor Australia. The organizational structure is characterized by the elimination of majority of roles and responsibilities of the middle management thereby leading to exclusion of a large share of functions of middle management. The elimination of notable functions of the middle management reflect on the reduction of gap between the top management and the ground level staff such as employees in the sales department, customers and staff working on the frontline (Farantos Koutsoukis, 2016). One of the profound advantages that can be obtained from the flat organizational structure refers to the breadth of the structure that facilitates noticeable reduction in response time of the organization. Response time could be defined from the perspective of variable customer preferences and conditions in the external environment (Haron, Sabri Zolkarnain, 2013, November). The distinct domains of the accounting software package for Tricor Australia could therefore be associated with the single flat organizational structure with negligible indications of support for a hierarchical organizational structure. The foremost entity supported by the domains of accounting software package of Tricor is the promotion of Group Policy development through integration of GPO in the computer units and users in context of the company (Hoque, Hossin Khan, 2016). The implications of Group Policy suggest that it is invulnerable to the organizational structure alongside indicating that users could not perform activities such as WMI filtering and creation of custom GPOs. The organizational structure of Tricor can be utilized for assignment of policies within the group and ensure feasible resource management owing to the observation of a logical nature. The observed flat organizational structure in case of Tricor Australia is capable of facilitating plausible advantages albeit with the concerns for specific issues and setbacks that can be observed in the operational aspects of the organization (Hovelja Vasilecas, 2013). The management is always at the risk of losing control over operations in a flat organizational structure and in case of Tricor Australia, the massive scale of the flat organizational structure could be reflective of concerns for threat to the operational systems due to disparities in distribution of managers and employees (Josiah, 2013). The management of the organization has to face considerable difficulties in terms of control due to lack of human capital for checking unrequited behaviour as well as support staff for following up on the decisions implemented by the senior management of Tricor. These implications could lead to formidable setbacks for the working relationships among individuals in a group leading to setbacks for management of human resources (Josiah, 2013). The management can face consider notable setbacks in context of personal interactions with employees. The implications of the development of personal interactions of the management with employees can be observed in the maintenance of trust alongside ensuring accountability and responsibility among employees for their work as well as for maintaining their professional commitments to the organization (Kummer Schmiedel, 2016). The management also faces noticeable limitations in the form of reduction in employee morale, authority issues, power struggles and ambiguities among employees pertaining to organization management. Employee retention can be a profound issue that can be observed in case of the flat organizational structure noticed in Tricor Australia. The performance of employees in the organization has to be dependent on the precedents of searching consistently for cognizable improvements in the company profile apart from the improvement in their salaries are reflective of profound concerns for realizing job satisfaction (Lee, et al., 2015). Employees could face considerable inclinations towards acquiring job positions in other companies where they perceive higher recognition of their personal efforts and contributions to development of the organizational profile with the references to increment in pay raise as well as promotions assigned to them. Flat organizational structure is accountable for potential setbacks for organizational growth and the crucial nature of change alongside the associated apprehensions can be major pitfalls for the company. The management of Tricor Australia can consider refraining from creative opportunities by inducing efforts for maintenance of organizational structure leading to reduction of prospects for the long term growth of the organization (Luse, et al., 2013). The flat organizational structure is also accountable for proliferation of unhealthy competition among employees thereby causing reduction in motivation of employees and increasing the confusion among employees. The reasonable system acquisition method for Tricor Australia would be a custom developed software since the processing requirements in the organization are specific for the organization thereby requiring own application software. The custom development of the application software can be ensured through the programmers available with the company who can coordinate with the analysts in order to establish internal information technology framework that can support the development of software on custom basis (Rajendran, 2015). The organization could implement the services of a computer agency or software development organization for accomplishing this objective which seems irrational owing to the large magnitude of the organization and the availability of a full-time development team. The final outcome of the development process is custom developed software that addresses the variable processing requirements of company and therefore suits the specific requirements of Tricor. The notable benefits that can be obtained from the custom developed software system acquisition method refer to fulfilment of the organizational requirements precisely and since costs of the system acquisition method would not bother Tricor due to global scale of operations, the system acquisition method provides viable implications towards cost effective solution for accounting information management. The flowchart for an organizations sales procedure (as shown in Appendix I) can be considered as a major requirement for the selling of products of Tricor Australia. Sale can be defined as the institution of a relationship between customer and vendor alongside promoting the completion of the prospective stage (Rasiah, 2014). The providers of services and goods by utilizing the channel of salespersons the objective is accomplished by the completion of sales as a response to request, appropriation and acquisition initiatives for the organization (Ren, et al., 2015). The communication of product title and the relevance of the product price with the application features and the obligations that can be derived on behalf of seller for passing ownership. The threats or setbacks that have been recognized in the organizations systems are profoundly reflective of the threats to the data security of Tricor Australia. The threats posed by hacking and the varying insufficiencies in the hardware and information systems framework could lead to detrimental consequences such as theft of confidential data related to the organization and the information pertaining to employees. These implications could account for cognizable setbacks in the custom developed software system implemented by the organization. The development of accounting system package and integrating them in the organizational framework are considered as imperative requirements for leveraging the advantages of accounting information systems for Tricor Australia. The necessity of technical support is crucial for the organization to capitalize on the prominent advantages of the accounting information systems which can be observed in the support facilitated by the Internet across varying telecom installations. The internet has become a common substrate for varying information networks and hence it indicates profound requirement for adoption in context of implementation of accounting software packages (Wali, Sadq Rasheed, 2016). Human resource management functions also require promising developments in the diverse sectors of training, computer centres, technical skills and accounting and should be facilitated to the staff at all times (Rajendran, 2015). The prominent insufficiencies in the domain of design, utilization and development of IT and accounting information systems could be derived from the lack of a functional accounting software package. Human resource can be considered as the primary entity which could dictate the operational efficiency of the computerized custom accounting software package. Therefore the software package presents promising implications towards the requirement of workforce involvement in the management of the software. Tricor Australia has noticeable competences in terms of technology based innovation that leads to adoption of computerized accounting system. The adoption of computerized accounting software reflects on the increment in organizational efficiency through reduction in delivery time and pricing for products and services alongside inducing operational development initiatives. The distribution of accounting software packages in diverse markets has depicted considerable change over the period of last 10 years indicating drastic modifications from country to country (Kummer Schmiedel, 2016). Existing market size for the accounting software packages reserves approximately 65% of total market share. However, the significance of market share in determining efficiency of accounting software packages can be undermined on the grounds of subjective nature of market share. The tax and audit services provided by the accounting software package can be considered as credible source of revenue owing to the independence of their demand from economic conditions. Accounting software packages are noticed for providing advisory services through incorporation of innovative technology such as data analytics and cloud computing services. Presently the Australian accounting software industry is dominated by names such as Xero, Intuit and MyOB leading to prominent levels of competition. The requirements for monitoring accounts and maintaining them flexibly could be imperatively observed in the case of every organization and hence the need for clipping off the conventional accounting frameworks and physical maintenance of accounting records became prominent. Therefore accounting software packages became highly popular in the Australian market in order to fulfil the above mentioned requirements. Adoption of accounting software packages is largely associated with the objectives for reducing tiresome paperwork that can lead to concerns for omission and commission as well as intensive use of time and financial resources. One of the profound challenges faced by companies in case of adoption refers to the lack of autonomy among various business units which leads to pressure on the accounting department for reviewing the accounting reports of other departments alongside removing any superfluous additions, inappropriate formats and duplication . The control of data security could be facilitated by the approach for information centric security alongside protection of cloud data leading to acquisition of competitive advantage for Tricor (Farantos Koutsoukis, 2016). Presently, customers of accounting software packages depict profound gaps and challenges such as weak reporting framework, outdated modules, and security threats, lack of features and accuracy, higher costs, lack of efficiency, access of foreign parties to the software. The accessibility of data is also a profound concern of system users since input of data is easily possible whereas extracting data could not be as flexible which invites concerns from application developers to make the software accessible and friendly for end users of the software (Kummer Schmiedel, 2016). Conclusion: The report presented a comprehensive literature review pertaining to the application of accounting software packages in context of a selected company, Tricor Australia. The report emphasized on limitations placed by organizational structure and the concerns of varying scales of operations of companies. Other noticeable highlights of the review are directed towards the concerns for data security in the information systems alongside accessibility of data for end users. References Ali, R. M., Haslinda, R. (2014).The impact of culture on strategic information systems planning: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Business Information Systems at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand(Doctoral dissertation, Massey University). Boonstra, A. (2013). How do top managers support strategic information system projects and why do they sometimes withhold this support?.International Journal of Project Management,31(4), 498-512. Dance, S. G. (2016).InfoPreneurs: the hidden people who drive strategic information systems. Springer. Farantos, G. I., Koutsoukis, N. S. (2016). Strategic Information Systems Planning Of Public Sector In Economic Crisis: An Integrated Framework.European Scientific Journal, ESJ,12(19). Haron, H., Sabri, S. M., Zolkarnain, Z. N. (2013, November). A situational analysis of Strategic Information System Planning in the context of a Malaysian SME. InResearch and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS), 2013 International Conference on(pp. 539-543). IEEE. Hoque, M. R., Hossin, M. E., Khan, W. (2016). Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) Practices In Health Care Sectors Of Bangladesh.European Scientific Journal,12(6). Hovelja, T., Vasilecas, O. (2013). A model of influences of environmental stakeholders on strategic information systems planning success in an enterprise.Technological and Economic Development of Economy,19(3), 465-488. Josiah, A. (2013). Business leverages on strategic information systems in Nigeria.International Journal of Learning and Development,3(1), 212-220. Kandjani, H., Mohtarami, A., Taghva, M. R., Andargoli, A. E. (2014). Classification and comparison of strategic information systems planning methodologies: a conceptual framework.International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS),10(1), 1-10. Kummer, T. F., Schmiedel, T. (2016). Reviewing the role of culture in strategic information systems research: a call for prescriptive theorizing on culture management.Communications of the Association for Information Systems,38(1), 5. Lee, T., Ghapanchi, A. H., Talaei-Khoei, A., Ray, P. (2015). Strategic Information System Planning in Healthcare Organizations.Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC),27(2), 1-31. Luse, A., Mennecke, B., Townsend, A., Demarie, S. (2013). Strategic information systems security: definition and theoretical model. Rajendran, R. (2015). Influence of Information Systems Strategic Orientation on SMEs' Perception of Export Barriers [dagger].South Asian Journal of Management,22(2), 119. Rasiah, R. (2014). Book Review: Social Sciences and Knowledge in a Globalising World, edited by Zawawi Ibrahim, Petaling Jaya: Malaysian Social Science Association and Strategic Information and Research Centre, 2012, 499 pp.Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies),6(2), 137-140. Ren, G., Huang, Z., Lu, L., Hua, J., Wang, J. (2015). Method of generating strategic guidance information for driving evacuation flows to approach safety-based system optimal dynamic flows: Case study of a large stadium.Journal of Systems Science and Complexity,28(3), 606-622. Wali, A. I., Sadq, Z. M., Rasheed, J. S. (2016). The Role of Strategic Information System Characteristics on Customer Service Quality (An Empirical Study at Soran and Sardam Private Hospitals in Iraqi Kurdistan Region Erbil City).International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS)? ISSN 2356-5926,3(2), 1778-1790.
Sunday, April 5, 2020
Improving Processes Essay Example Paper Improving Processes Essay Introduction Improving Processes: Chipotle Mexican Grill This report is to discuss the findings from observations made at the Chipotle restaurant on Orange Avenue in downtown Orlando. Observations were made on Monday August 9, 2010 with the first time frame from noon to 1 p. m. and the second time frame from 3 p. m. to 4 p. m. These observations are used to make recommendations on managing queues, process capability, and statistical process control. Observations from the two time frames will provide information regarding the process design of customers placing orders, preparation, and payment, employee duties when not preparing orders, along with the number of customers served. A stop-watch and a note pad were used to collect information. According to Chase, Jacobs, Aquilano (2005) a company must design the product or service to be produced or delivered at a reasonable cost. Chipotle has accomplished this task. Customers receive a made-to-order menu selections consisting of a burrito, burrito bo wl, crispy or soft tacos, or a salad. Selections include chicken, barbecue or free-range pork, and steak along with beans, rice, guacamole, four types of salsa, sour cream, cheese, and lettuce. Beverage items include beer choices. Customers can place orders online with payment on a secure, password protected site, faxing an order form, or using an I-Phone application. Queues A rope divider is used at all times that guides customers to the order point. I visit Chipotle on a regular basis during peak times and I find the system adequate in moving customers through the process. Employees appear well trained in preparing the selections quickly without error. Improving Processes Essay Body Paragraphs A sign should be placed to direct the pick-up of phone, fax, or I-Phone orders. Performance Metric and Process Capability The output of Chipotle is the customer purchase of menu items. To gather data for ChipotleÃ¢â¬â¢s service process, I collected information on the number of customers served in one hour with respect to the number of employees on the prep line. During the peak time of noon to 1 p. m. 63 customers were served with an average of 57 seconds to complete the order. During the slow time of 3 p. m. to 4 p. m. with 18 customers were served. During the slow time employees engaged in more pleasantries with customers and customers took ore time in choosing items so a little more time was used to prepare the order. Customers and employees likely feel some sense of pressure during peak times to place the order to keep the line moving. When employees were not preparing orders they were busy with other maintenance items such as refilling food items, cleaning, and stocking bevera ges, bags of chips, the condiment station, and bags for to-go orders. At Chipotle, the process is simple and streamlined as shown in the flow chart at the end of the paper. During my observations, three employees worked the assembly line in both periods. The steps in building a burrito are: Employee #1: Order taking-the customer orders a burrito and then heats a flour tortilla in a press and places on a foiled wrapping paper and passes to Employee # 2. Employee #2: Employee starts building the burrito with customer choices. Employee scoops additional items from sectioned station bins containing options and layering each item in the burrito. Customer continues to makes selections until no selections remain; the burrito is then complete. If a side of guacamole is ordered then the employee scoops a portion and places it into a separate container and caps. For dining in: burrito is placed on a tray and passed to the cashier. To-go: burrito is wrapped tightly in the foil paper and marked so the cashier knows what to charge. Employee #3: Dine-in: employee asks if customer wants a drink or chips. If yes, the employee pulls items and places on the tray and rings up the order. If no, employee rings up order. To-go: employee asks if customer wants a drink, chips; if yes, employee pulls items and places in the bag, and rings up the order. If no, employee rings up the order. Employee processes payment in the form of cash, credit, or debit card. For cash payments, cashier takes cash and makes change. For credit or debit payments, cashier takes card, swipes in the card system where a receipt is automatically printed, hands receipt to customer and customer is on their way. No signature is required. Bottleneck During the peak collection period there was a bottleneck with employee #2 because of the number of items chosen for the order and again at employee #3 when processing payment. Employee # 3 handles the packaging, drinks, chips and payment which when added together equals more time than the two previous steps. Part of this time is because customers are deciding on a beverage and whether they want chips. Of note, a bottleneck also occurred at employee #2 when adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s were placing orders because they had difficulty making choices among items in part because they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure if they would like an item or because they were waiting for their friend to make a decision. Recommendations are needed for employee #2 and employee #3. Learning Curve The menu selection at Chipotle is a key factor in the service provided. Selections are in front of the preparer and customer so the learning curve for both is very low; items are placed in the line in the same sequence every day. An employee can be trained in a few hours because of the ease of use. The quality of the food is high. Chipotle employees are high performers so fewer employees are needed to operate a store. The day of my visit there were six employees: three worked the order line, one o n the grill, one to keep the other ingredients ready for use and the store manager. Chipotle appears to be a lean operation. Process Design Chipotle has a basic design process where order taking, food assembly, and payment is in sync. Chipotle offers a self-serve condiment bar. Chipotle accepts credit/debit cards but does not require a signature, which saves time and makes the process more efficient when it comes to time metric. Chipotle has a short lead time from order placement to order completion. Chipotle offers some food promotions that are also processed quickly. Statistical Process Control During my observations, I did not see any customers return a food item for replacement nor did I observe any food being destroyed because it was considered unusable. Chipotle appears to have controls in place for when to cook the meat to avoid waste. Chipotle can adapt quickly from a slow period to busy period quickly. The backup system of having items available for replacement in the produ ction line saves time. Chipotle takes pride in offering healthy, high quality food choices from sustainable resources. Chipotle contracts with certain farmers who agree to meet the requirements of Chipotle for the products they serve; products are rarely purchased for use outside the United States. Six Sigma Using the words of Edward Baker, former director of quality at Ford Motor Company, Ã¢â¬Å"Until you reach agreement on what constitutes a service defect, your Six Sigma effort will likely disappoint. According to Deming, Ã¢â¬Å"People donÃ¢â¬â¢t cause defects, systems doÃ¢â¬ (Harvard Business School, Working Knowledge for Business Leaders). Six Sigma is a beneficial tool to food service for increasing food safety. Six Sigma engages employees to provide problem-solving ideas. At the same time employees feel empowered when engaging in problem-solving solutions. Six Sigma increases service and delivery and measures output so that inputs can be available when needed further enh ancing the process and customer satisfaction as well as profits. Recommendations Additional employee During peak hours four employees can be incorporated into the line increasing station #2 to two employees. One employee can scoop the selections and the other can place the order on the tray, retrieve any chips and beverage for dining-in; for to-go orders, the same items can be retrieved to the counter and the cashier can complete the transaction while the order is bagged. This solution could accommodate more customers during the rush period reducing wait time. Of note, to-go orders using an additional employee could result in slowing the process if this employee and the cashier are not in sync. During slower times the extra employee can prep food items, stock work and condiment stations, clean, drinks, bags, empty the trash, and allow time for breaks. Menu additions Chipotle should consider adding soup or chili to the menu, create a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s menu, and smaller portions. Side orders of rice and beans could be offered for those who do not want rice and/or beans in their burrito or tacos. Additional items could cause bottlenecks because more choices would be available but additional items would increase profits and a broader customer base. A slight learning curve would exist for a short amount of time because the station set-up would be altered slightly and additional tasks would have to be performed e. g. spoon soup into a bowl. Payment Process One recommendation would be to have the cashier only accept payments because multiple tasks for Employee #3 slows the process cycle time. A lower cycle time allows maximum output that increases revenues. Another recommendation would be to install change dispensing registers. These registers would save time and provide more accuracy in dispersing change. To-go Orders Signage should be placed for customers picking up phone, fax, and I-Phone orders. This is not clearly marked when entering the store and could cause c onfusion and delays. During peak times, there should be an additional station for prepaid to-go orders so customers do not have to wait in line or cause a delay in the queues because the cashier has to stop and give the customer the order. Any order placed by phone, internet, or fax should be prepaid using a credit card to expedite service. Promotions Chipotle should increase the number and frequency of promotions. With todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, customers want the best quality for the least amount of money. ChipotleÃ¢â¬â¢s main menu items are well priced between $5. 75 and $6. 50 and the portions are large so there is value in the meals. In conclusion, the assembly line process used by Chipotle works well because of the limited number of items on the menu. The core functions of the three employees are on the assembly line with backup food items close by to allow easy retrieval to continue the process. Having to leave the line and go to a kitchen area for more items would significant ly impact the process. Chipotle maintains a strong customer base because a quality meal is sold for a low price with excellent service. Recommendations for prepaid orders and additional employee should be strongly considered. Building a Burrito Peak Period Building a Burrito Slow Period References Chase, R. , Jacobs, R. , Aquilano, N. (2005). Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. (11th ed. ) McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Harvard Business School, Working Knowledge for Business Leaders. Six Sigma Meets the Service Economy Ã¢â¬â Six Sigma: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Not Just for Manufacturing. 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Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Inclusive Classroom Best Supports Student Success Federal law in the United States (according to the IDEA) prescribes that students with disabilities should be placed in their neighborhood school with as much time as possible in a general education setting. This is LRE, or Least Restrictive Environment, provides that children should receive educational services with their typical peers unless education there cannot be achieved satisfactorily even with appropriate supplementary aids and services. A district is required to maintain a full range of environments from least restrictive (general education) to most restrictive (special schools).Ã The Successful Inclusive Classroom Keys to success include: Students need to be active - not passive learners.Children should be encouraged to make choices as often as possible, a good teacher will allow students some time to flounder as some of the most powerful learning stems from taking risks and learning from mistakes.Parental involvement is crucial.Students with disabilities must be free to learn at their own pace and have accommodations and alternative assessment strategies in place to meet their unique needs.Students need to experience success, learning goals need to be specific, attainable and measurable and have some challenge to them. What is the Teachers Role? The teacher facilitates the learning by encouraging, prompting, interacting, and probing with good questioning techniques, such as How do you know its right- can you show me how?. The teacher provides 3-4 activities that address the multiple learning styles and enables students make choices. For instance, in a spelling activity a student may choose to cut and paste the letters from newspapers or use magnetic letters to manipulate the words or use colored shaving cream to print the words. The teacher will have mini-conferences with students. The teacher will provide many learning manipulatives and opportunities for small group learning. Parent volunteers are helping with counting, reading, assisting with unfinished tasks, journals, reviewing basic concepts such as math facts and sight words. In the inclusive classroom, a teacher will differentiate instruction as much as possible, which will benefit both the students with and without disabilities, since it will provide more individual attention and attention to What Does the Classroom Look Like? The classroom is a beehive of activity. Students should be engaged in problem solving activities.Ã John Dewey once said, the only time we think is when were given a problem. The classroom that is child centered relies onÃ learning centers to support whole group and small group instruction. There will be a language center with learning goals, perhaps a media center with opportunity to listen to taped stories or create a multimedia presentation on the computer. There will be a musicÃ center and a math center with many manipulatives. Expectations should always be clearly stated prior to students engaging in learning activities. Effective classroom management tools and routines will provide students with reminders about the acceptable noise level, learning activity and accountability for producing a finished product or accomplishing the center tasks. The teacher will supervise learning throughout the centers while either landing at one center for small group instruction or creating Teacher Time as a rotation. Activities at the center take into consideration multiple intelligences and learning styles. LearningÃ center time should begin with whole class instructions and end with whole class debriefing and evaluation: How did we do with maintaining a successful learning environment? Which centers were the most fun?Ã Where did you learn the most? Learning centers are a great way to differentiate instruction.Ã You will place some activities that every child can complete, and some activities designed for advanced, on level and remediated instruction. Models for Inclusion: Co-teaching:Ã Often this approach is used by school districts, especially in secondary settings.Ã I have often heard from general education teachers who are co-teaching provide very little support, are not involved in planning, in assessment or in instruction. Sometimes they just dont show up and tell their general ed partners when they have scheduled and IEP.Ã Effective co-teachers help with planning, provide suggestions for differentiation across abilities, and do some instruction to give the general education teacher the opportunity to circulate and support all the students in a classroom. Whole Class Inclusion:Ã Some districts (like those in California) are placing dually certified teachers in classrooms as social studies, math or English Language Arts teachers in secondary classrooms.Ã The teacher teaches the subject to both students with and without disabilities and carries a caseload of students enrolled in a specific grade, etc.Ã They would most likely call these inclusion classrooms and include students who are English Language Learners or struggling with grades. Push In:Ã A resource teacher will come into the general classroom and meet with students during centers time to support their IEP goals and provide small group or individualized instruction.Ã Often districts will encourage teachers to provide a mix of push in and pull out services. Sometimes the services are provided by a para-professional at the direction of a special education teacher. Pull Out:Ã This sort of pull out is usually indicated with a Resource Room placement in the IEP.Ã Students who have significant problems with attention and staying on task may benefit from a quieter setting without distractions.Ã At the same time, children whose disabilities put them at a significant disadvantage with their typical peers may be more willing to risk reading aloud or doing math if they arent worried about being dissed (dis-respected) or mocked by their general education peers.Ã What does Assessment Look Like? Observation is key. Knowing what to look for is critical. Does the child give up easily? Does the child persevere? Is the child able to show how he got the task right? The teacher targets a few learning goals per day and a few students per day to observe for goal attainment. Formal/informal interviews will help the assessment process. How closely does the individual remain on task? Why or why not? How does the student feel about the activity? What are their thinking processes? In Summary Successful learning centers require good classroom management and well known rules and procedures. A productive learning environment will take time to implement. The teacher may have to call the whole class together regularly in the beginning to ensure that all rules and expectations are being adhered to. Remember, think big but start small. Introduce a couple of centers per week. See more information on assessment.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Faux Fur for Real - Article Example Fashion directors and designers have been increasingly surprised with the ongoing trend of high end sales of faux fur products. Major online sites and retail stores inclusive of the high end designer brands as well as the mass market retailers have been showcasing huge stocks of materials and garments which look like cheetah, beaver or mink. However, the surprising points which the article depicts are that the materials coming from Japan and Europe are extremely high in terms of quality and sustainability. Moreover they offer greater variety in terms of designs and textures and at the same time come at a lower price than real fur. In other words, the article speaks about the emerging trend towards consumption of faux fur over real fur over the years both by the general public as well as the celebrities. Objective of article The objective of the article is to put forth the various attributes of faux fur which has made it immensely popular among consumers. Some of the products which ha ve helped to have an edge over real products are that they allow greater flexibility and resistance towards tough conditions and hazards. Additionally, they are also available at much lower prices in comparison to the products which are made of real fur. ... The target market comprises of both the males and females in society belonging the group mentioned in this context. Globalization has knit the entire world into a single unit which has caused considerable intermingling of the western and the eastern cultures of the world. Thus the influence of the western cultures on the Asian nations has been very prominent and inevitable. With the economic development and improvement of nations, the youth have been increasingly attracted towards stylish products, commodities and accessories. The general consumption of fashionable dresses and products has seen a rise over the years. Thus it is imperative that the use of fur products and accessories would be high in most nations. However, greater demand of the product would be felt from nations having cooler temperatures. Thus the target markets would comprise of the youth belonging to those nations having cold and mild temperatures rather than the tropical countries. Considering both the fashion tre nds as well as the environmental conditions faux fur would be increasingly demanded more in the western countries which demands greater protection on cold temperatures and also showcases the latest fashion trends in the world. Designers and manufacturers must be updated about the latest consumer trends in the sector which the article does successfully. The article provides a very clear depiction about the changing consumption trends of fur products and the emerging changes taking place over the years. The retailers, manufacturers and designers would be benefitted greatly from the trend which the article seeks to put forth. Marketing Concepts The article depicts a marketing strategy